Primary Sources for Chapter 10
Liberation of Mind and Body: Early Modern Europe, 1543 to 1815
The Recantation of Galileo: the astronomer surrenders to the accusations of the Inquisition.
Content Question: To what specifically does Galileo plead guilty?
Analysis Question: How would his promises about future behavior satisfy the Church authorities?
Evaluative Questions: How should the maintenance of authority be balanced against the pursuit of knowledge?
Voltaire on Tolerance: an article from his Philosophical Dictionary wrestles with the causes of and means toward religious toleration.
Content Question: According to Voltaire, what are the causes for intolerance and persecution?
Analysis Question: What distinctions does Voltaire make between individual and state-sponsored actions?
Evaluative Questions: How achieveable are Voltaire's solutions toward more tolerance?
The Behavior of Louis XIV: the Duc de Saint-simon offers his views of the monarch.
Content Question: What are the strengths and weaknesses of Louis XIV according to Saint-simon?
Analysis Question: How do Louis XIV’s court and life reflect the mechanims of power for absolute monarchy?
Evaluative Questions: What would be the long-term challenges of absolute monarchy given Louis XIV’s methods? How does Louis compare and contrast with other rulers (e.g. Hammurabi, Cyrus, Julius Cæsar, Augustus, Charlemagne, William “the Conqueror,” or Napoleon)?
The Declaration of Independence: The official explanation for the Americans’ separation from Great Britain.
Content Question: What are the key complaints about British tyranny?
Analysis Question: How is the Declaration designed to gain sympathy from intellectuals of the Enlightenment?
Evaluative Questions: Given how the British government actually worked, how legitimate is if for the Americans to blame the king? How much in the document is propaganda rather than fact?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: The foundational document of French liberties.
Content Question: What are the main propositions of this declaration?
Analysis Question: How are these rules similar to the American Bill of Rights?
Evaluative Questions: How do these laws reflect the ideals of the Enlightenment?
For a view from the opposite sex, seeDeclaration of the Rights of Woman and the Citizeness? How does it compare to the "Man's" version?
"What is the Third Estate?" by Abbé Sieyes: a member of the first estate declares his support for the third.
The Levée en Masse: a call to the radical defense of France as it was being invaded by foreign armies.
Napoleon’s Report on the Condition of France: The new emperor sums up what he has accomplished.
Content Question: What are the most important accomplishments listed here?
Analysis Question: How do these reflect the virtues of the Enlightenment?
Evaluative Questions: How do these claims compare and contrast with other rulers (e.g. Hammurabi, Cyrus, Julius Cæsar, Augustus, Charlemagne, William “the Conqueror,” or Louis XIV)?