1. History’s Story
  2. Wanderers and Settlers: The Ancient Middle East to 400 B.C.
  3. The Chosen People: Hebrews and Jews, 2000 B.C. to A.D. 135
  4. Trial of the Hellenes: The Ancient Greeks, 1200 B.C. to A.D. 146
  5. Imperium Romanum: The Romans, 753 B.C. to A.D. 300
  6. The Revolutionary Rabbi: Christianity, the Roman Empire, and Islam, 4 B.C. to A.D. 1453
  7. From Old Rome to the New West: The Early Middle Ages, A.D. 500 to 1000
  8. The Medieval Mêlée: The High and Later Middle Ages, 1000 to 1500
  9. Making the Modern World: The Renaissance and Reformation, 1400 to 1648
  10. Liberation of Mind and Body: Early Modern Europe, 1543 to 1815
  11. Mastery of the Machine: The Industrial Revolution, 1764 to 1914
  12. The Westerner’s Burden: Imperialism and Nationalism, 1810 to 1918
  13. Rejections of Democracy: The InterWar Years and World War II, 1917 to 1945
  14. A World Divided: The Early Cold War, 1945 to 1980
  15. Into the Future: The Contemporary Era, 1980 to the Present
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Primary Sources for Chapter 8
The Medieval Mêlée: The High and Later Middle Ages, 1000 to 1500

Study Guide | Art History | Links

Return of the Kings

William the Conqueror according to The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle:  a portrayal of the new King of England.
Content Question: What details show William’s method of rule?
Analysis Question: How does this description show both positive and negative aspects of Wiliam?
Evaluative Questions: How does William compare to other rulers (e.g. Hammurabi, Cyrus, Julius Cæsar, Augustus, Charlemagne, Louis XIV, or Napoleon)?

Discipline and Domination

Life of St. Bernard  (You only have to consider the first life, not the one beginning “From the Acta Sanctorum of Arnold...,” although it is interesting): a description of the alternative lifestyle of disciplined Cistercian monks.
Content Question: What words describe the monastic life and the Christian faith?
Analysis Question: How do Bernard and his fellow monks organize their way of life?
Evaluative Questions: Why would anyone find this way of life so attractive?

Plenty of Papal Power

Gregory VII’s Dictatus Papæ:  The papal declaration of supremacy.
Content Question: What specific points which infringe on imperial political authority?
Analysis Question: Which provisions were valid then, at some point in the past, and/or today?
Evaluative Questions: How do such claims reflect Christian values or not?

The Age of Faith and Reason

Peter Abelard, Sic et Non, Introduction:  an explanation of why it us useful to ask questions even of Holy Scripture.
Content Question: What examples does Abelard cite of scripture being questioned in the past?
Analysis Question: According to Abelard, what can happen if we do not doubt and question?
Evaluative Questions: Can authorities guarantee that only approved answers will result from doubting?

A New Estate

The Conversion of Peter Waldo: the story of how the Waldensian heresy began.
Content Question: What actions describe Peter’s conversion?
Analysis Question: How does his story reflect the growing wealth from urban life?
Evaluative Questions: How can society balance the desire for wealth with the demands of Christian charity?

Not the End of the World

The Black Death, described by Boccaccio:  an eye-witness survivor describes the plague in Florence.
Content Question: What were the four varying reactions to the plague?
Analysis Question: How did society not entirely break down?
Evaluative Questions: How would people react today to such a catastrophe?

See also:

ORB Text Library: Translations and Transcriptions: several medieval texts of interest, including Gesta Normannum and Deeds of Arms

Online Medieval and Classical Library: many medieval sagas and romances.


Primary Source Project Links

8. Gregory VII versus Henry IV


Last Updated: 1 February 2017