1. History’s Story
  2. Wanderers and Settlers: The Ancient Middle East to 400 B.C.
  3. The Chosen People: Hebrews and Jews, 2000 B.C. to A.D. 135
  4. Trial of the Hellenes: The Ancient Greeks, 1200 B.C. to A.D. 146
  5. Imperium Romanum: The Romans, 753 B.C. to A.D. 300
  6. The Revolutionary Rabbi: Christianity, the Roman Empire, and Islam, 4 B.C. to A.D. 1453
  7. From Old Rome to the New West: The Early Middle Ages, A.D. 500 to 1000
  8. The Medieval Mêlée: The High and Later Middle Ages, 1000 to 1500
  9. Making the Modern World: The Renaissance and Reformation, 1400 to 1648
  10. Liberation of Mind and Body: Early Modern Europe, 1543 to 1815
  11. Mastery of the Machine: The Industrial Revolution, 1764 to 1914
  12. The Westerner’s Burden: Imperialism and Nationalism, 1810 to 1918
  13. Rejections of Democracy: The InterWar Years and World War II, 1917 to 1945
  14. A World Divided: The Early Cold War, 1945 to 1980
  15. Into the Future: The Contemporary Era, 1980 to the Present
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Primary Sources for Chapter 4
Trial of the Hellenes: The Ancient Greeks, 1200 B.C. to A.D. 146

Study Guide | Art History | Links

To the Sea

The Founding of Cyrene:  the ancient historian Herodotus describes the establishment of a Greek colony in northern Africa.
Content Questions: What forced the inhabitants of Thera to found a new colony?
Analysis Question: How do the colonizers interact with the natives?
Evaluative Questions: How do conflicts between invader and invaded echo throughout history?

Even more details on the origins of Cyrene can be found here.


The Political Animal

The Polity of the Spartans:  the ancient Athenian historian Xenophon offers a brief description of some aspects of Spartan society.
Content Question: What are the virtues which Lykurgus wanted to establish?
Analysis Question: How do these compare with Athenian virtues (see next)?
Evaluative Questions: How difficult was it to maintain the unique Spartan social behavior over time?



The Funeral Oration of Pericles:  The leader of Athens describes the virtues of his society while memorializing the dead from the Peloponnesian Wars.
Content Question: What are the special virtues of Athens and its citizens according to this speech?
Analysis Question: How do these compare with Spartan virtues (see above)?
Evaluative Questions: How can a society hold such diverse cultural patterns?


The Cultural Conquest

Apology of Socrates in his own defense (read from "Strange, indeed ... [to] die many times.": The philosopher explains why he asks questions.
Content Question: What does Socrates say is his service to Athens?
Analysis Question: How would his behavior threaten those in power?
Evaluative Question: How should society deal with criticism?


Primary Source Project Links

4. Athenians versus Melians


Last Updated: 16 January 2017